Glosar

Naš pojmovnik sadrži mnogo izraza koji se mogu koristiti na čitavoj web stranici pored softverskih aplikacija koje nudimo. Ovaj pojmovnik pomoći će vam u definiranju mnogih tehničkih izraza koji se koriste za opisivanje različitih aspekata povezanih s računalnom sigurnošću.


Pretraži abecednim redom:
A | B | C | D | E | F | G | H | I | J | K | L | M | N | O | P | Q | R | S | T | U | V | W | X | Y | Z

A

Abandonware - Abandonware is a software, ignored by the developer and owner, no longer supported by the business that created it. Software of that kind is usually still under copyright, but the user may not be tracking violations of that copyright. As it is no longer supported or updated, it is usually rife with vulnerabilities.
Account Harvesting - Account harvesting is a process of gathering user account data from services, systems or databases using phishing or malware, among other methods.
Account Hijacking - Account Hijacking is a process used to gain access to an individual user's email account, computer account or any other account used with a device or service. The hijacking is the work of cyber criminals.
ActiveX kontrole - male aplikacije koje web-stranicama dodaju interaktivne funkcije i značajke. ActiveX se može koristiti za multimedijske i animacijske efekte, osim što se koristi za prikazivanje skočnih prozora ili se primjenjuje na desktop aplikacijama i alatima za razvoj softvera. ActiveX se obično automatski instalira i aktivira bez interakcije korisnika računala ili dopuštenja koja dozvoljava instaliranje zlonamjernog koda u nekim slučajevima.
Address Bar Spoofing - This is an approach that allows the replacement of legitimate URLs in the browser address bar. It is often used in data or financial theft operations.
Advanced Persistent Threat (APT) - Advanced Persistent Threats are prolonged and targeted attacks against an entity or organization with the idea of compromising systems or stealing information.
Adware - Programi dizajnirani za prikazivanje ili pokretanje reklama. Prikazuje oglase u obliku skočnih prozora, slikovnih bannera ili tekstualnih bannera. Adware programi ugrađeni su u druge shareware ili besplatne aplikacije. Trojanci mogu automatski preuzeti i instalirati zlonamjerne adware programe bez dopuštenja korisnika računala. Ranjivosti web preglednika također se tiho preuzimaju i instaliraju adware programi.
Air Gap - Air gap refers to computers incapable of connecting to a network or another computer connected to the internet. Air gapped systems were believed to have higher security, but they can still get infected through external means.
Alat za udaljeni pristup / administraciju (RAT) - Program koji omogućuje udaljeni pristup sustavu. Ako ga napadači koriste, program za udaljeni pristup može se upotrijebiti za instaliranje neovlaštenih programa ili obavljanje zlonamjernih radnji.
Alatna traka - Alatna traka često se nalazi pri vrhu prozora web preglednika ili tik ispod glavne trake izbornika web preglednika. Alatne trake obično se sastoje od niza okvira i gumba koji omogućavaju brzi pristup različitim funkcijama alatne trake ili aplikacije. Gumbi na alatnoj traci često sadrže slike koje odgovaraju njihovim funkcijama koje se aktiviraju klikom. U većini slučajeva Alatne trake mogu se prilagoditi, sakriti ili ukloniti raznim metodama koje mogu uključivati postavke nekih popularnih aplikacija web preglednika.
Alias - Alternativno ime trojanskog softvera, virusa ili drugog zlonamjernog softvera koje koriste drugi dobavljači antivirusnih ili anti-špijunskih softvera. Sigurnosna organizacija može računalnom parazitu dati drugačije ime za određeni računalni virus.
Aplikacija - Program koji se može instalirati na računalo koje se sastoji od izvršnih datoteka, podataka, DLL datoteka i postavki registra. Većina aplikacija prati datoteke za instalaciju i deinstaliranje.
Asymmetric Cryptography - Asymmetric cryptography is a way of communicating securely using a pair of keys – public and private. Public keys can be shared with people, but private keys must be kept secret and known only to the owner.
Attack vector - Attack vectors are techniques used to gain illegal access to networks or systems. It is often part of research into vulnerabilities to see how an attack vector may be used to do so.

B

Backdoor - Softver za daljinsko upravljanje koji napadaču ili trećem dijelu omogućuje pristup inficiranom računalu. Pozadine mogu ugroziti računalovu žrtvu omogućujući krađu osobnih podataka. Trojanci se smatraju infekcijama u stražnjoj sredini jer zaobilaze sigurnosne mehanizme.
Bad sector - Bad sectors are sectors on a device's disk or flash drive that are unusable, usually due to physical damage.
Bait advertising - Bait advertising is a shady advertising practice where customers are promised inexpensive items, but once the customers take interest in the product, the advertiser makes it unavailable and redirects users to a more expensive version of the original offer.
Banking Trojan - Banking Trojans are a type of Trojan made to harvest credentials, personal information and financial information stored and processed being part of online banking.
Batch files - A batch or sequence of commands carried out by a file that contains operating system commands. The .bat extension is used for batch files. Batch files are compatible with Windows operating systems.
BIOS - Mali dio softvera pohranjenog na matičnoj ploči računala koji pruža osnovne funkcije operacijskom sustavu ili funkcionalnosti sustava.
Boot Sector - A boot sector is a part of a hard drive or other information carrier that contains code loaded into a system's RAM to start the boot process. Boot sectors are created when a volume is formatted.
Bootkit - Bootkits are a kind of rootkit that replaces or makes changes to the bootloader of an affected system with the aim of taking control. Removing a bootkit requires a bootable medium with the necessary tools to revert the changes.
Bot - A bot is a compromised machine controlled by threat actors or an automated program coded with instructions to follow that allows interaction with websites and humans through interactive interfaces. Within the context of malware, the former definition applies.
Botnet - Skupina umreženih računala unaprijed programirana za automatsko izvršavanje radnji poput slanja neželjene poruke. Bonetnet može s jednog računala poslati tisuće neželjenih poruka.
Browser Helper Object (BHOs) - A type of Dynamic Link Library (DLL) file that Internet Explorer allows to alter or modify the way it acts or functions. A BHO can include adding menu items, toolbars and the modification of HTML data.
Brute Force Attack - Brute force attacks are a method used to decode encrypted data through an application. This is done on a trial and error basis, until the decryption is complete, most often when passwords are involved.
Bundleware - Bundleware is a term used to describe software bundles that contain more than one type of software. These may not always be malicious, but they may contain adware and potentially unwanted programs. Some of these bundles may not allow the users the option to install parts of the package, forcing them to install unwanted software.
Business Email Compromise (BEC) - A business email compromise attack is used when an employee, usually a high ranking one within the structure of a business, is manipulated via social engineering into wiring large sums of money to a third party account.
Business Process Compromise (BPC) - Business process compromise attacks happen when the threat actors target weaknesses in an organization's process or systems, looking for loopholes in their operations to get through. Unlike BEC attacks, BPC doesn't lean on social engineering to make it happen.

C

Cache - In terms of computing, a cache is the temporary storage used to speed up computer operations. Examples of that can be seen with the browser cache storing website content, allowing faster loading times after a first visit.
Certifikat - Elektronički dokument koji sadrži i dokazuje identitet web stranice. Potvrde se koriste za provjeru autentičnosti web mjesta i sadrži korisničko ime i javni ključ.
Click Fraud - Click fraud is the use of artificially inflated statistics of online ads through the use of automated clickers or hitbots.
Clickjacking - Clickjacking is a kind of attack that tricks users into clicking a website element that is disguised as another element or made transparent. The technique allows attackers to hijack the user clicks and to redirect them to another website or to get them infected with malware.
Command & Control (C&C) - Command and Control, also known as C&C or C2 is a central server or a computer used by criminals to issue commands and control malware and botnets. These are also used to receive reports from infected machines.
Crack - A crack is a term used for software used to figure out passwords during a brute force attack. It may also mean a piece of software used to bypass software security features, for example copy protection.
Credential Stuffing - Credential stuffing means trying to access online accounts through username and password combinations acquired from stolen data. This is often done through the use of an automated program.
Crimeware - Crimeware is a software specifically made with criminal actions in mind, such as ransom, communications monitoring, data theft and more.
Cross-site Scripting (XSS) - Cross-site scripting is an injection attack that uses a vulnerability in web apps, allowing threat actors to inject malicious scripts into a site. Trusted sites are often used to deliver malicious scripts to visitors.
Crv - Virus koji stvara kopije na drugim pogonima ili umreženim računalima za obavljanje zlonamjernih radnji.
Crypter - A program that makes malware harder to read. The most basic type of technique used by crypters is obfuscation. The technique is used in scripts, such as VBScript and JavaScript. More complex methods use better encryption to make it harder for security researchers to analyze the code of a threat.
Cryptojacking - Cryptojacking is the covert use of devices to mine cryptocurrency for cybercriminals.

D

Datoteka domaćina - Datoteka koja se koristi za traženje IP adrese uređaja koji se povezuje na računalnu mrežu. Paraziti mogu upotrebljavati datoteke računala za preusmjeravanje korisnika računala na zlonamjerne web stranice.
Destruction of Service (DeOS) - Destruction of service attacks use botnets to destroy an organization's backups, ensuring recovery of critical systems and data after a cyber attack is harder or impossible.
Dictionary Attack - A dictionary attack is an act of penetrating protected systems or servers by using a large set of words for password cracking. The attack often works because many users are still using ordinary words as part of their passwords.
Disk za pokretanje - Disk koji sadrži određene datoteke ili programe koji omogućavaju pokretanje računala. Disk za podizanje sustava može biti u obliku CD-a za pokretanje, diskete ili fizičkog tvrdog diska. Diskovi za pokretanje obično su potrebni za učinkovito uklanjanje virusa pomoću antivirusne aplikacije.
Distribuirani napad odbijene usluge (DDoS) - Osim DoS napada, to su procesi koji uključuju botnete ili skupinu kompromitiranih sustava kako bi resurs ili web stranica postali dostupni korisnicima koji nisu namijenjeni.
Distributed Denial of Service (DDoS) - A distributed denial of service (DDoS) attack is an attack made against networks, forcing systems to send requests to a specific server, overwhelming it and disrupting its operations to the point where users can't connect to it.
Dodatak preglednika - Softverska komponenta koja komunicira s programom za web preglednik koji pruža dodatne funkcije ili mogućnosti koje inače nisu uključene u preglednik. Vrste dodataka preglednika mogu uključivati ActiveX kontrole i pomoćne objekte preglednika.
Domain Name System (DNS) - The Domain Name System is an internet protocol that translates URLs into numeric IP addresses, allowing devices to access web servers without the hassle of manual input of said numeric values or forcing the users to remember them.
Downloader - Aplikacija dizajnirana za preuzimanje i instaliranje datoteka u automatiziranom procesu. Neželjene datoteke ili aplikacije mogu preuzimati preuzimači koji potencijalno zaraze računalo parazitom.
Doxing - Doxing is an internet-based practice of publically broadcasting personal information on an individual or an organization, obtained through research or hacking. This may be done through accessing publically available databases, social media profiles or social engineering.
Drive-By Download - A drive-by download happens when one or more files are downloaded onto a system without the consent of the user or their knowledge. That may also happen when software bundles install programs the users didn't sign up for.
Drive-By Mining - Drive-by mining is a term used to describe a JavaScript code embedded into a web page, with the goal of mining cryptocurrencies on devices that visit the webpage.
Drive-by-Download - Automatsko preuzimanje softvera ili datoteka kada se posjeti određeno web mjesto. Ovaj se postupak obično izvodi iskorištavanjem sigurnosnih rupa ili izmjenjenim sigurnosnim postavkama na određenom računalu.
Droneware - Aplikacije koje se koriste za daljinsko upravljanje računalom radi zlonamjernih radnji poput slanja neželjene poruke ili izvođenja DDoS napada.
Dropper - Zlonamjerna datoteka koja nosi virus ili trojansku infekciju bacajući je na određeno računalo radi zlonamjerne namjere.
Dwell time - The term refers to the amount of time passing between the initial infiltration of a system by malware, to the moment it was detected and removed from it.

E

Exploit/Security Exploit - Softver koji koristi ranjivost unutar korisnikovog sustava za dobivanje pristupa sustavu.
Extended Validation SSL Certificate (EV SSL) - The certificate used to identify authentication solutions used in HTTPS websites, telling the users whether the owner or operator of a website is legitimate. A green bar by the address bar shows the presence of an EV SSL on the website.

F

File-Based Attack - File-based attacks are attacks where threat actors use a specific file types, such as documents like .docx and .pdf to fool users into opening them. The files are embedded with malicious code, one that gets executed once the files are opened.
Fingerprinting - Fingerprinting is a term used to describe the process of initial gathering of information about a system. The process is used by malware or threat operators to determine whether a system contains any vulnerabilities criminals can utilize during attacks.

G

General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR) - The General Data Protection Regulation is the standard data protection law used in the European Union. It places regulations on the personally identifiable information of citizens and organizations and how it can be stored, process and controlled.
Globally Unique Identifier (GUID) - A globally unique identifier is a number created by Microsoft applications for the purpose of identifying files, user accounts, hardware and components.
Greyware - Greyware is software that does disruptive, annoying or unwanted tasks, but not to the point of becoming malicious.
Grupiranje - Praksa distribucije više komada softvera ili datoteka zajedno. U nekim se slučajevima neželjeni softver distribuira i širi zlonamjerne aplikacije ili parazitske infekcije putem paketa bez prethodne najave ili pristanka korisniku računala.

H

Hacker Tool - Alati ili programi koje haker koristi za pristup računalu kako bi ga mogli napasti. Hakerski alati se obično koriste za dobivanje informacija ili pristup domaćinima zaobilazeći sigurnosne mehanizme koji su uspostavljeni radi zaštite. Također se koriste za onesposobljavanje računala što sprečava normalnu upotrebu.
Hash Value - A hash value is the alphanumeric string used to identify files or data. Examples of hash value algorithms are MD5, SHA-1 and SHA-2.
Heap Spraying - Heap spraying is a technique used to write malicious code in various parts of the heap, the memory allocated for program use. The code is later used to refer to give exploits a greater chance of success.
Homograph Attack - A homograph attack is a method of fooling users where a treat actor uses similarities in character scripts to make fake domains with addresses close to their legitimate counterparts.
Host Intrusion Prevention System (HIPS) - The Host Intrusion Prevention System is a software package that watches for suspicious activity on host machines.

I

Indicator of Compromise (IOC) - Indicators of compromise can be found after a system intrusion takes place. The indicators can take place as domains, hashes, malware files, IP addresses or virus signatures, among other things.
Injection Attacks - Injection attacks are a broad term that refers to a specific attack vector. In such cases a malicious code is part of the attacks, one that allows the attackers to provide input that alters the execution of programs. Injection attacks can have several scripts, most often cross-site scripting (XSS) or SQL injections.
Internationalized Domain Names (IDN) - Internationalized domain names, are domain names containing a minimum of one non-ASCII character, enabling users to create domain names in their native language.
Intranet - Intranets are private networks with restricted access, often set up by a company that aims at having a private network for company employees.
IoT Devices - An Internet-of-Things (IoT) device is a hardware with a sensor, transmitting data from one location to another on the web. IoT devices include wireless sensors, actuators, software, computer devices and more. These can be embedded in industrial equipment, medical devices, mobile devices, environmental sensors and other devices. Connected IoT devices share usage and other data, potentially allowing the data to be used to reduce costs, gain efficiency or come up with new opportunities. IoT devices can be any man-made object with electronic functionality and an assigned IP address, capable of transferring data over networks.

J

JavaScript virus - Virus dobiven od JavaScripta koji se pokreće s web stranice ili drugog zlonamjernog izvora. JavaScript virus ne mora zahtijevati mnogo interakcije od korisnika računala radi zaraze.
Juice Jacking - Juice Jacking is a cyberattack used against targets through mobile devices. It happens when the user plugs their device into a USB port to charge. The port works as a data connection the threat actors abuse, introducing malware to the device through the USB link or retrieving sensitive information.

K

Key Generator - Key generators, more commonly known as keygens are an illegal software that generates random keys, most often software product keys that allows users to activate a program without paying.
Keylogger (ili Keystroke Logger) - Softver za praćenje koji bilježi aktivnosti tipkovnice. Keylogger u osnovi može kompromitirati prijave i lozinke gdje se prenose udaljenom korisniku. Neki Keylogger softver je zakonit, ali uglavnom se koristi za zlonamjerne radnje koje vode do krađe identiteta.
Ključevi registra - Pojedinačni unosi u Registry koji uključuju vrijednosti za određene postavke instaliranih programa. Ključevi registra mogu se mijenjati računalnim infekcijama koje mogu utjecati na upotrebljivost vašeg računala.
Kolačić - Dio podataka koji web mjesto koristi za spremanje na tvrdom disku za pretraživanje tijekom posjeta određenoj web stranici. Jedinstveni identifikatori koriste se nekim kolačićima koji povezuju podatke kao što su registracija, podaci za prijavu, korisničke postavke, informacije o skrbi o kupnji itd.
Kolačići za praćenje - vrsta kolačića koja se koristi za praćenje navika korisnika na web surfanju. Kolačiće za praćenje obično koriste oglašivači koji analiziraju podatke u marketinške svrhe. Praćenje Kolačići koji se koriste u zlonamjerne svrhe mogli bi napadača naoružati tekstualnom datotekom koja sadrži detalje o internetskim aktivnostima korisnika računala.
Korisnik - Vlasnik računala ili dodijeljeni administrator sustava. To je osoba koja uglavnom radi i ima potpuni pristup računalu.

L

Lateral Movement - Lateral movement is a term used for various tactics threat actors utilize to move through a network, searching for important assets and data.
Layered Service Provider (LSP) - A layered service provider is a Windows feature allowing software to access data flowing through a network. That allows for interception, filtering and modifying of traffic between the web and a system.

M

Macro Virus - A macro virus is a malware made in the same macro language used for software applications. Examples of such applications are seen with Microsoft Word and Microsoft Excel.
Magecart - Magecart is a name given to a group of criminals who use web skimming to make money from vulnerable users. The attackers are usually after the Magento system, a popular e-commerce platform of online stores, stealing payment card information from visiting customers.
Malspam - Malware spam or malspam is a spam email made to deliver malware. In most cases spam is unsolicited mail, malware spam has malicious attachments, infected URLs or phishing messages. Malspam may be an opening salvo in an attack filled with ransomware, bots, infostealers, cryptominers, spyware, keyloggers and other malware.
Malvertising - Malicious advertising is the use of online ads to spread malware with nearly no need for user interaction.
Man-in-the-Browser (MiTB) - A man in the browser is a middleman attack where malware is used to intercept and alter communications between browsers and their libraries.
Man-in-the-Middle (MitM) - A man in the middle is an attack that happens when threat actors are intercepting and forwarding traffic between two places without either of the locations noticing the operation. Some of these attacks change the communications between the two parties, without them realizing it happened. To make it happen, the attackers not only have to have knowledge that allows them a believable impersonation attempt, but to be able to follow and manipulate the communication between two or more groups. MitM attacks can be seen between browser and internet or between a Wi-Fi hotspot and a web user, for example.
Master Boot Record (MBR) - The master boot record is the first sector on partitioned media or a startup drive. It contains a bootloader, an executable that works as the loader of the OS.
Master Boot Sector virus - Virusna infekcija koja utječe na glavni zapis pokretanja na tvrdom disku ili disku. Ova vrsta virusne infekcije učitava se u memoriji pri pokretanju prije nego što je antivirusna aplikacija uspije otkriti ili ukloniti.
MD5 - A one-way operation hash function transformed into a shorter, fixed–length value. Verifies the data integrity by performing a hash operation on the data after received. No two or more strings will produce the same hash value.
Memory Dump - A memory dump is the content of the RAM created over time. This happens when the program caches or in cases of system failure. The memory dump is used to diagnose the issue, but can also be created for memory diagnostics or investigation of advanced malware.
Memory Resident - A memory resident program has the capability of staying loaded in memory, which is a common trait of some types of malware.
Metadata - Metadata is data regarding existing data. It gives the background details such as relevance, origin, creation of data. Geotags in media files such as photographs are a good example, as well as the author and data modified within document files.
Multi-factor authentication (MFA) - Multi-factor authentication uses two and more authentication protocols. Two-Factor Authentication (2FA) is the most common example of those, using these methods to gain access to a resource online.

N

Napad zbog uskraćivanja usluge (DoS) - Koncentrirani napori da se računalni resurs ili web stranica ne učine dostupnim namjeravanim korisnicima. DoS napadi sastoje se od bombardiranja ciljnog stroja s velikom količinom zahtjeva za vanjsku komunikaciju sprječavajući uobičajeni promet da pristupi stroju ili izvoru.
Napad - Napad koji uzrokuje štetu ili krađu pohranjenih podataka. Neki napadi mogu rezultirati sabotažom računalne mreže.
Neželjena pošta - Neželjena pošta ili poruke e-pošte koje su nepoželjne ili neupitne. Neželjena pošta obično se šalje više primatelja reklamnih proizvoda. Neželjene poruke uključuju i e-poruke koje sadrže zlonamjerne privitke koji, ako se otvore, mogu zaraziti računalo primatelja.

O

Obfuscation - Obfuscation happens when malware hides its true intent to its potential victims, or hiding parts of is code from malware researchers during analysis.
Objektivni kriteriji - Kriteriji koje koriste tvrtke protiv špijunskog softvera koje određuju faktore ponašanja u obzir procesa.
OpenSSL - OpenSSL is a software cryptographic library used for secure communication on computer networks. It uses an open source Secure Sockets Layer (SSL) and Transport Layer Security (TLS) protocols.
Otmičar preglednika - Programi koji zamjenjuju postavljenu početnu stranicu preglednika, stranicu rezultata pretraživanja, stranicu s pogreškama, stranicu pretraživanja ili drugi sadržaj preglednika neočekivanim ili neželjenim sadržajem.
Otmičar - Softver koji modificira računalo bez najave ili pristanka od strane korisnika. Otmičari normalno mijenjaju postavke preglednika mijenjajući početnu stranicu ili preusmjeravajući korisnike na neželjene web stranice.

P

Packer - Program koji se koristi za komprimiranje grupe datoteka i šifriranje izvornog koda. Paketi izvode ovaj postupak kako bi spriječili podudaranje memorijske slike datoteke tako da je može biti teško otkriti.
Password Cracker - Softver dizajniran za dešifriranje zaboravljene, izgubljene ili nepoznate lozinke. Password Cracker identificira lozinku izvođenjem brutalnog napada, metodom testiranja svake kombinacije znakova za pronalaženje lozinke. Ako se koristi u nezakonite svrhe, Provalnik lozinki mogao bi predstavljati ozbiljan rizik po sigurnost i privatnost.
Password cracking - Password cracking is a brute force method used against encrypted accounts or systems. The method uses a technique that works with an acquired list of password hashes or a database.
Payload - In cybersecurity, payloads are a malware that threat actors use against victims. Examples of those can be seen when a cybercriminal sends out an email with attached malicious macros, infecting users with malware.
Peer-to-Peer (P2P) - Peer-to-peer involves the sharing of resources or files between two devices connected to each other over a network. Each of the devices becomes a file server for the other, linking each other and allowing transfer.
Penetration Testing - Penetration testing is the practice of running controlled attacks on a system, software or network, looking for unpatched vulnerabilities that may be exploited by cyber criminals. Performing penetration testing allows organizations to improve their security against future attacks.
Phishing - Nepoštene aktivnosti koje stječe osobne podatke kao što su brojevi kreditnih kartica, brojevi socijalnog osiguranja i lozinke. Krađa identiteta dolazi u obliku e-pošte i web stranica. Web stranica za krađu identiteta ima lažno sučelje koje obično nalikuje legitimnom mjestu koje korisnik računala ne može prepoznati u većini epizoda. E-poruka s krađu identiteta obično lažira zakonitog pošiljatelja ili tvrtku koju korisnik računala identificira kao zakonitu.
Popis blokova - Popis web adresa ili poruka e-pošte za koje se vjeruje da imaju zlonamjerni sadržaj ili za koje se zna da šalju neželjene poruke.
Port Scanner - Sigurnosni softver koji se koristi za otkrivanje usluga računalne mreže koje nudi udaljeni sustav.
Potencijalno neželjeni program (PUP) - Program koji može poželjeti značajan broj osoba koje ga preuzmu. To se može dogoditi zato što se program najčešće preuzima kao dio skupa programa, pri čemu korisnik možda nije svjestan da je PUP uključen u program koji korisnik zapravo želi. Ili to može biti zato što je osoba otkrila (ili će vjerojatno otkriti) da program pokazuje ponašanja koja mogu utjecati na privatnost ili sigurnost. Ovi su primjeri samo ilustrativni; mogu biti i drugi razlozi zbog kojih je program potencijalno nepoželjan.
Pozadinski zadatak - Aplikacija ili proces koji se neprekidno izvodi bez upada, vidljivih prozora ili korisničkih sučelja vidljivih korisniku računala. Zlonamjerne aplikacije mogu se pokrenuti u pozadini bez upozoravanja korisnika računala na njegov rad.
Pravila o privatnosti - Obavijest koja je pravno obvezujuća i pruža način na koji tvrtka postupa s osobnim podacima korisnika. Pravila o privatnosti otkrivaju kako se upotreba podataka, uključujući sekundarne podatke, koristi i dijeli s drugim stranama.
Prevara - Metoda krivotvorenja adrese e-pošte, IP adrese ili zakonite web stranice radi stjecanja osobnih podataka ili pristupa sigurnom sustavu.
Prevara - Prevare se obično nazivaju oblikom lažnih poruka e-pošte koji obmanjuju korisnike računala koji obećavaju materijal ili sreću budućim primateljima poruke. Prevare su također povezane s novčanicama koje se bave novcem ili dalekim smislom za obećanja.
PUM - Potentially unwanted modifications are an alteration made to the computer's registry or other settings that either damage a computer or allow changes to its behavior without any knowledge by the user. Unwanted behavior can be caused by legitimate software, grayware, potentially unwanted programs or malware.

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RAM Scraping - RAM scraping, also known as memory scraping is the act of scanning the memory of digital devices, such as Point-of-Sale (PoS) systems to steal banking and personal information. PoS malware may be made with RAM scraping in mind.
Ransomware - Ransomware is a type of malware that locks users out of a device and/or encrypts files, then forces them to pay ransom for their decryption.
Registar - Baza podataka koju koristi operativni sustav koji pohranjuje određene podatke o korisniku, postavke i podatke o licenci za sav instalirani hardver i softver na računalu.
Remote Administration Tool (RAT) - A software that allows users to control another device. Often used by cyber criminals to gain sensitive data or to sabotage networks or devices.
Remote Desktop Protocol (RDP) - Remote desktop protocol is a network communications protocol that allows remote asset management. Network admins often use RDP to diagnose issues on the endpoint of a network.
Riskware - Riskware are legitimate programs that contain security vulnerabilities and loopholes that may be exploited by hackers with malicious goals in mind.
Rootkit - Aplikacija koja zlonamjerno dobiva i/ili održava pristup razini administratora bez otkrivanja. Rootkiti se mogu koristiti za izradu Backdoor-a na kojem bi moglo biti ugroženo računalo. Nakon što program dobije pristup, on se može koristiti za snimanje pritisaka na tipke i praćenje internetskih aktivnosti čime se kradu osobni podaci.
RunPE Technique - A technique used by malware that involves running the original executable of a software, suspending it, then unmapping it from memory and mapping a malicious payload in its place.

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Sandbox - A controlled environment that allows security researchers and IT administrators to determine whether it is safe to deploy their network or to test a piece of malware or software.
Screen Scraper - Screen scrapers are a type of malware capable of making screenshots or gathering data on the desktop to share with its operator.
Screen Scrapers/Screen Capturers - Vrsta softvera za praćenje koji uz pritiske tipki bilježi radne površine na radnoj površini. Programi za snimanje zaslona koriste se za snimanje videozapisa računalnih aktivnosti na zaslonu radi kasnijeg pregleda. Ako se koristi u zlonamjerne svrhe, brisač zaslona ili program za snimanje zaslona mogu dovesti do krađe osobnih podataka.
Screenlocker - Screenlockers can come in legit form with programs locking a device when the users are away, or a piece of malware that does the same with the idea of blocking access for the users. The latter may try to look like the desktop, while encrypting files in the background, so it may blackmail victims into paying ransom later on.
Secure Sockets Layer (SSL) - A secure sockets layer is an encryption protocol that ensures connection between client and server on the internet. The protocol has been deprecated and replaced by the Transport Layer Security (TLS) protocol since 2015.
SEO - Search Engine Optimization (SEO) is a set of marketing techniques used to raise the popularity and visibility of a website online. The goal is to keep the website high in search results whenever users are looking for related keywords in search engines.
Server Message Block (SMB) - Within computer networking, the server message block is the internet standard communications protocol for sharing serial ports, printers, folders and other resources between a client and a server on networks.
Skimming - A method of fraud that targets ATMs and Point-of-Sale (POS) terminals where a device called a skimmer is installed. The same can be done through the use of malware that steals information from credit or debit cards.
SkypeSkraping - SkypeSkraping je računalni poduhvat u Skype aplikaciji koji omogućava napadačima da preuzmu kontrolu nad računom druge osobe.
Social Engineering - The methods used by attackers who manipulate victims to breach security protocols and give up sensitive information. There are many ways that can be done, most relying on psychological manipulation, praying on the victim's vanity, greed or compassion toward causes.
Softver za automatsko preuzimanje - Aplikacija koja se koristi za preuzimanje i instaliranje softvera bez dopuštenja ili interakcije od strane korisnika računala.
Softver za biranje - Programi koji koriste modem računala za upućivanje poziva ili pristup uslugama. Birači se mogu obratiti zlonamjernim izvorima u kojima može doći do preuzimanja neželjenih datoteka ili krađe osobnih podataka.
Softver za daljinsko upravljanje - Bilo koja vrsta programa koja se koristi za udaljeni pristup računalu.
Softver za praćenje - Računalni softver koji nadzire ponašanje i postupke računala, uključujući snimanje osobnih podataka.
Spear Phishing - Spear phishing is a method used to deceive users through the use of online messages, most often emails. The method allows criminals to steal important data. Attacks like these are targeted at either a single user or a specific group of users, such as company employees. The victims are manipulated into filling out forms or installing data gathering malware on their system when they open the attachments.
Spyware - Praćenje aplikacija koje šalju podatke o osobnim podacima bez odobrenja računala. Upotreba uobičajenog špijunskog softvera je za oponašanje komercijalnog softvera, koji smanjuje mogućnost korisnika da kontroliraju svoje računalo i uvelike utječe na sigurnost sustava.
SQL Injection - An SQ injection is a type of injection that introduces SQL code of a malicious nature into the MySQL database, using that as a workaround against security measures. It is done with the idea of revealing sensitive data, tampering with it or revealing it as a result. This is usually done with vulnerable sites possessing user input capability, such as search boxes.
Stalkerware - A general term used to describe the software that is made to track individuals while remaining hidden in the system. Stalkerware apps sometimes market themselves as parental monitoring tools, but they can be used to spy on any person.
Supply Chain Attack - A kind of attack that goes after the most vulnerable parts of a business or organization's supply network. The attacks are done through hacking, embedding of malware into a manufacturer's software and more. The goal of the attack is to gain access to sensitive data and to damage the company's business.

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Threat Actor - Within the realms of cybersecurity, a threat actor is a group of individuals behind malicious incidents and attacks. Given the nature of these incidents, it is unclear whether they are the work of a single individual or a group, so the term is used as a blanket expression for responsible parties.
TOR - An acronym for the software known as "The Onion Router", made to promote privacy and anonymity online by stopping data collection on location and browsing habits.
Trackware - A program used to gather information on user activity or system information. The data is sent off to third party entities after collection.
Transport Layer Security (TLS) - Transport Layer Security is an encryption protocol used to authenticate the communications of two applications. It ensures the channel is private and that the exchanged data is only viewed by authorized parties.
Trojan - Zlonamjerni program koji se čini legitimnim i poduzima određene mjere, ali zapravo izvodi drugi. Trojani se uglavnom preuzimaju s web mjesta ili P2P komunikacije.
Typosquatting - The practice of registering a domain name with a similarity to existing popular names, hoping to get traffic by users who mistype the name of the more popular domain.

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Ugovor o licenci za krajnjeg korisnika (EULA) - Pravni ugovor ili ugovor između autora i korisnika određenog programa. Licenca softvera koja određuje parametre i ograničenja upotrebe aplikacije.
USB Attack - An attack used by threat actors who use USB drives to spread malware. In targeted attacks a physical element is used, with infected USB drives deliberately dropped off in public locations, such as parking lots or office buildings. Victims who pick them up and open them on their computers end up infecting their systems.

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Virtual Local Access Network (VLAN) - A network of systems simulated a connection on the same network. These are bound through an OSI Layer 2 datalink layer, meaning they can communicate as if they are wired, even if they are on different local area networks and physically distant. VLAN can be used to divide LAN into subsets that allow sharing of information and devices.
Virtual Memory - A memory management technique used by the Windows operating system to enlarge address space. That allows a part of the hard drive to store pages and to copy them into RAM memory space when needed. The method is slower than using RAM, but it enables a user to run programs even when RAM is limited or completely in use.
Virus - Opasan program koji sadrži kod koji replicira kopiju sebe.
Voice over Internet Protocol (VoIP) - A technology that allows users to make voice calls over the internet through a broadband connection instead of analog connection. The technology is used in voice chat applications worldwide.
Voice Phishing - A method used in social engineering efforts by criminals to fool users via phone or VoIP to steal information from their victims.

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Whale Phishing - A phishing scheme used to target high profile end users, usually celebrities, politicians or businessmen. Criminals behind whaling campaigns are often working to trick targets into sharing their personal information or business credentials. The most common method involved in whale phishing involves social engineering.
Wide Area Network (WAN) - A wide area network is a private telecom network that interconnects multiple LANs. It may cover a wide area in the physical world. Routers connect to a LAN or a WAN.
Wireless Application Protocol (WAP) - A standard set of communication protocols that allows wireless devices such as smartphones to securely access the internet. WAP is supported on most wireless networks and all operating systems.
Wireless Personal Area Network (WPAN) - A network for interconnected devices within an individual's workspace. The connection between these devices is usually wireless with an area of coverage around ten meters. Examples of such technology can be seen with Bluetooth and any connected peripheral devices.
Wiretap Trojan - A malware capable of secretly recording instant messaging and voice conversations online. The malware often comes with a backdoor that allows the user to retrieve the recordings for later use.

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Zapis o podizanju sustava - Dio područja za podizanje sustava ili datoteka koji sadrže upute potrebne za pokretanje računala. Zapisi o dizalici zaraženi su virusima koji omogućuju virusu da se instalira u memoriju tijekom pokretanja.
Zarađivač sektora za pokretanje - vrsta virusa koji oštećuje sektor za pokretanje na pogonu ili disku omogućavajući virus da se učita u memoriju pri pokretanju. Poznato je da se ova vrsta virusa širi vrlo brzo.
Zlonamjerni softver - Zlonamjerni softver koji su osmišljeni za obavljanje neželjenih radnji ili kompromitiranje vašeg sustava. Popularni primjeri zlonamjernog softvera uključuju viruse, trojance i neželjene programe.
Dom > Istraživanje zlonamjernog softvera > Glosar
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